Data arrays about objects and phenomena of the real world together with software and hardware for their processing are called information systems (IS).

What are the components of IS

One of the main components of IS are databases, data banks.

Banks and databases are repositories of significant amounts of information based on computer equipment. The difference between data banks and databases is that data banks, as a rule, include several databases for different industries, organized on high-capacity drives, contain high-performance processors, are maintained by a team of specialists and provide information to a large number of firms and users.

IS can be divided into factual documentary.

Facts are recorded in the facts – specific data values ​​about real-world objects. The main idea of ​​such systems is that all information about the objects is communicated to the computer in some kind of previously examined format (for example, the date – in the form of a combination of DD.MM.YYYY.).

The information with which this system works has a clear structure allowing the machine to distinguish one data from another, therefore the factual system is able to give unambiguous answers to the questions posed.

What is the documentary IS

Documentary ISs serve a fundamentally different class of tasks that do not imply a definite answer to the question posed. The database of such systems consists of a set of unstructured text documents (articles, books, abstracts) and graphic objects. The purpose of the system is to provide, in response to a user request, a list of documents or objects that satisfy the request. The principal feature of this system is its ability, firstly, to issue the documents necessary for the user, and secondly, not to issue unnecessary ones (#, if a synonym is used, or a spelling error). # Cancer – animal, constellation, disease.

What is the ES

There is a special type of IS – expert systems (ES), professional advisers, experts on a specific issue – experts. The expert needs knowledge to give a reasonable answer (this information is stored in a generalized form and is ready for use). Knowledge expresses general dependencies between various features of objects. We ask the expert a question, or he asks some clarifying questions, then issues a decision, advice, recommendation. The expert system combines knowledge and active response to the user’s need.

What are Information reference systems  

Modern information and reference systems provide:

– clear, beautiful graphical interface;

– completeness (a huge amount of information in one database);

– relevance;

– accessibility (easy to install on a PC, copy, cheap enough to buy);

– efficiency of obtaining new information; – the possibility of effective convenient search (for example, by document number, title, date of adoption, etc.);

– the possibility of outputting the necessary information on paper;

– the use of multimedia technology, etc.